Testosterone, like many anabolic steroids, was classified as a controlled substance in 1991. Testosterone is administered parenterally in normal and delayed-release (depot) forms. In September 1995, the FDA approved testosterone transdermal patches (Androderm), and many transdermal forms and brands are now available including implants, gels, and topical solutions. A testosterone buccal system, Striant, was FDA-approved in July 2003; Striant is a mucoadhesive product that adheres to the buccal mucosa and provides a controlled and sustained release of testosterone. In May 2014, the FDA approved an intranasal gel formulation of testosterone (Natesto). A transdermal patch (Intrinsa) for hormone replacement in women is under investigation; the daily dosages used in women are much lower than for products used in males. The FDA refused approval for Intrinsa in 2004 stating that more data regarding safety, especially in relation to cardiovascular and breast health, were required.
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Once a diagnosis of clinically low testosterone levels has been determined, what is the best course of action to restore them? The most impelling means for many adults is to receive a course of prescription testosterone replacement therapy. Both research and actual results consistently indicate that the most effective form of therapy is the implementation of a bio-identical hormone replenishment program for individuals whose levels fall well below the average testosterone levels in men by age . The use of these injections, which must be prescribed and supervised by a licensed physician, can fastidiously increase an adult’s deficient hormonal levels over a specific period of time.