Propionate regulates lymphocyte proliferation and metabolism

Initial dose based on previous asthma drug therapy and disease severity; 100 mcg via oral inhalation once daily is the usual recommended starting dose for patients not on an inhaled corticosteroid. After 2 weeks of therapy, if asthma symptoms are uncontrolled, increase dose to 200 mcg via oral inhalation once daily. Max: 200 mcg once daily. Administer at the same time each day. The maximum beneficial effect may not be achieved for up to 2 weeks or longer after starting treatment. Titrate to the lowest effective dose once asthma stability is achieved.

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

40 mcg inhaled twice daily, approximately 12 hours apart, is the recommended starting dose. For patients who do not respond adequately to 40 mcg after 2 weeks of therapy, increasing the dosage to 80 mcg twice daily may provide additional asthma control. The maximum recommended dosage is 80 mcg twice daily. The starting dosage is based on the severity of asthma, including consideration of the patients’ current control of asthma symptoms and risk of future exacerbation. Improvement in asthma symptoms can occur within 24 hours of the beginning of treatment and should be expected within the first or second week, but maximum benefit should not be expected until 3 to 4 weeks of therapy. Improvement in pulmonary function is usually apparent within 1 to 4 weeks after the start of therapy. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Expert Panel defines low dose therapy as 80 to 160 mcg/day, medium dose as 161 to 320 mcg/day, and high dose therapy as more than 320 mcg/day for children ages 5 to 11 years. The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines define low dose therapy as 100 mcg/day in this age group. Titrate to the lowest effective dose once asthma stability is achieved.

Propionate regulates lymphocyte proliferation and metabolism

propionate regulates lymphocyte proliferation and metabolism

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