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Bioelectrical impedance analysis (often referred to as “BIA”) is an accurate method of estimating body cell mass. Instruments for reliable measurements of body composition are commercially available (., BIA Quantum; RJL Systems, Inc., Detroit). These devices can be used quickly in the office ( Figure 1 ) ; a minimum of staff training is required. Bioelectrical impedance analysis provides an estimate of the total body water by measuring changes in a low electrical current passed between electrodes placed on the upper and lower extremities. The sizes of other body compartments (including body cell mass) are then calculated using equations based on assumptions about the relationships between different body compartments and total body water. The validity and reliability of the results depend heavily on several factors, including correct placement of the electrodes, “normality” of body habitus, hydration status and the equations used to estimate body cell mass. 10